Provide a 5 pages analysis while answering the following question: Uncovering the Principles of Morality through Utilitarianism. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. One of the earliest examples of practical reasoning as cited by Pojman and Fieser is found in Sophocles’ Antigone, where King Creon was faced with a tragic task of sacrificing his beloved niece named Antigone. She has violated the law by performing funeral rites over her brother, Polynices (102). In this situation, King Creon believed that it is necessary to sacrifice one person rather than expose his society to the dangers of rebelliousness regardless of the person’s innocence or social standing (Pojman & Fieser 102).
. . . . . . . . . . . As a formal ethical theory, the foundation of Utilitarianism was built on by the Greek philosopher Epicurus, who said that pleasure is the goal that nature has ordained for individuals. it is also the standard by which people judge everything as good (Pojman & Fieser 103). This view explains that rightness and wrongness are determined by pleasure or pain that something produces. With this theory, many other philosophers were inspired to focus on the notion of general happiness which stresses that the happiness of the majority must be considered over individual happiness. An example of this is the theory of Francis Hutcheson which stated that the best action is the action that produces the greatest happiness of the greatest numbers (Pojman & Fieser 103). David Hume was the one who introduced the term utility to describe the pleasing consequences of actions as they affect people (Pojman & Fieser 103).
. . . . . . . . . . . Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill discuss the classical expressions of Utilitarianism. According to Jeremy Bentham, there are two main features of Utilitarianism, and these are the consequentialist principle and the utility principle. The consequentialist principle states that the rightness or wrongness of an act is determined by the goodness or badness of the results that flow from it. it is the end, not the means that counts, the end then justifies the means (Pojman & Fieser 103). On the other hand, the utility or hedonist principle states that the only thing that is good in itself is some specific type of states like pleasure, happiness and welfare. it views pleasure as the sole good and pain as the only evil (Pojman & Fieser 103).