Write 16 pages with APA style on Hydraulics and Pneumatics: Hydraulic Pump Design. The impulse flow pump turbine that was developed initially operated in the USA in the form of a Pelton wheel with a split bucket and a central edge in 1880.Pelton wheel with double elliptic buckets that includes a notch for the jet and a needle that controls the nozzle.

For rotor flow at the inlet and outlet are radial, while the inflow and outflow at the runner are totally axial. Generally, the system involves the use of steel scroll cases for heads between 35 and 65 m in addition to the spiral casing for heads between 35m and 65m. The runner diameter for the largest hydraulic turbine pump is up to 10 m (Massey, 1996). The design of horizontal bulb hydraulic pump turbines include a horizontal axis with the advantage of having a straight flow path through the intake and draft tube.

It is possible to estimate the torque on any turbomachinery rotor from the inlet and outlet velocity triangles resulting in Euler equation that assists in the calculation of specific energy transferred by the runner.

In the case of hydraulic turbines, the degree of reaction is defined as the ratio of a drop in static pressure across the runner to the static pressure drop across the stage. Pelton turbines are small turbines that do not have reactions with the occurrence of pressure drop across the stationary structures while no drop in pressure across the runner.

Pumps provide mechanisms of moving fluids from one level to another and are excellent areas of application of the hydrostatic principle (Eastop, 1997). The main types of pumps in use are hydrostatic or positive displacement pumps and centrifugal pumps.

This paper focuses on centrifugal pumps that can be understood by hydrostatic considerations. This paper provides a report about the types of modern pumps that are commonly used to accomplish functions of pipes and the aims of this report are to provide detail regarding the types of pumps used in industries, their design considerations and specifications during design.

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