Writing a trending project on an  Infant mortality with an in text citations, APA Formatting and references.

There should be a draft and a final project. both should have an in text citations and References.

The causes should include Lack of Access to Quality Healthcare, poor maternal health, Poverty and any other factors too.

Take note a draft and a final project with 3 to 4 pages.



University of Maryland Global Campus

UCSP 615: Orientation to Graduate Studies


AUGUST 30,2022





Infant mortality is the death of an infant before his or her first birthday The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths for every 1,000 live births. (UNICEF 2020)

Newborn mortality is a significant problem in healthcare. Every year, thousands of newborn babies die before they reach their first birthday. In developed countries like United States, Canada, Switzerland Norway and Germany the majority of these deaths are preventable. However, in developing countries especially in Africa, infant mortality is very alarming.

According to (UNICEF 2020 – deaths per 1,000 live births) and these are some Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality rate especially in Africa.

Sierra Leone — 80.10. Central African Republic — 77.50. Somalia-72.72 and Nigeria 72.24

The chances of survival from birth varies widely depending on where a child is born. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest neonatal mortality rate in 2020 at 27 (25–­­32) deaths per 1000 live births, followed by central and southern Asia with 23 (21–­­25) deaths per 1000 live births. A child born in sub-Saharan Africa is 10 times more likely to die in the first month than a child born in a high-income country. Country-level neonatal mortality rates in 2020 ranged from 1 death per 1000 live births to 44 and the risk of dying before the 28th day of life for a child born in the highest-mortality country was approximately 56 times higher than the lowest-mortality country. (World Health Organization 2018)

There are many factors that contribute to high rates of newborn mortality. Poor maternal health, lack of access to quality healthcare and poverty are all major contributors. In many cases, newborn deaths are caused by complications during pregnancy or delivery. There are many different causes of infant mortality, from infection to birth defects or accidents. The main causes of infant mortality in the United States are different than the main causes of infant death around the world.

The U.S. has an infant mortality rate Value of  5.7

Healthiest States: Massachusetts, New Hampshire: 3.9

Least-healthy State: Mississippi: 8.6

Definition: Number of infant deaths (before age 1) per 1,000 live births

Data Source & Year(s): CDC WONDER, Linked Birth/Infant Death Files, 2017-2018

Suggested Citation: America’s Health Rankings analysis of CDC WONDER, Linked Birth/Infant Death Files, United Health Foundation, AmericasHealthRankings.org, accessed 202

In addition, in the United States and worldwide, the most common causes of infant death in the first weeks after birth are different than those that occur later in the first year. Suggested Citation Hoyert, D. L., & Xu, J. (2012). Deaths: preliminary data for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports, 61(6). Retrieved July 23, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_06.pdf

Most importantly I will be exploring the three trending areas and measures that can be taken to mitigate such occurrences to save human lives.

Moreover, there are other factors that can cause newborn mortality poor roads to convey pregnant mothers to the hospital, delays of rapid responds to emergencies and lack of hospital equipment these issues are predominantly in Africa.

Discussion of Three Trends

Lack of Access to Quality Healthcare

There are several initiatives that aim to reduce newborn mortality rates. These include improving access to quality healthcare, providing education, and training for healthcare providers, and increasing awareness of the importance of good maternal and newborn care.

Despite these efforts, newborn mortality rates remain high in many parts of the world. This is due to several factors, including the high number of births in developing countries, and the fact that many women do not have access to quality healthcare. In order to further reduce newborn mortality rates, it is essential that these factors are addressed.

One way to address the problem of newborn mortality is to improve access to quality healthcare. This can be done by providing more funding for healthcare facilities in developing countries. Additionally, it is important to train healthcare providers in how to properly care for pregnant women and newborn babies.

Another way to reduce newborn mortality rates is to increase awareness of the importance of good maternal and newborn care. This can be done through education and outreach programs.

Additionally, it is important to provide women with information about the signs and symptoms of complications during pregnancy and delivery. By increasing awareness of the importance of good maternal and newborn care, more women will be able to seek out quality healthcare and reduce their risk of complications.

Poor Maternal Health

Maternal health refers to the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period.

Each stage should be a positive experience, ensuring women and their babies reach their full potential for health and well-being.

Although important progress has been made in the last two decades, about 295 000 women died during and following pregnancy and childbirth in 2017. This number is unacceptably high.

The most common direct causes of maternal injury and death are excessive blood loss, infection, high blood pressure, unsafe abortion, and obstructed labor, as well as indirect causes such as anemia, malaria, and heart disease.

Most maternal deaths are preventable with timely management by a skilled health professional working in a supportive environment.

Ending preventable maternal death must remain at the top of the global agenda. At the same time, simply surviving pregnancy and childbirth can never be the marker of successful maternal health care. It is critical to expand efforts reducing maternal injury and disability to promote health and well-being.

Every pregnancy and birth are unique. Addressing inequalities that affect health outcomes, especially sexual and reproductive health and rights and gender is fundamental to ensuring all women have access to respectful and high-quality maternity care.


A high proportion of the increased risk for death among infants born to women living in poverty reflects an excess of post neonatal deaths, many of which are caused by infectious etiologies or injuries (7) and which can be prevented by medical care and public health interventions. Strategies to reduce the excess risk for post neonatal death in low-income families include increasing the availability of health care in medically underserved areas and removing the financial barriers to health care. In addition, improved access to health care should be linked to education and community-oriented programs to inform parents about preventive measures for infections (e.g., rehydration for diarrhea) and injuries (e.g., child restraints and smoke detectors). Identification of infants at high risk for post neonatal death can assist in ensuring that such infants receive adequate health care; this strategy was used to reduce post neonatal death rates in a statewide intervention program in West Virginia.

WHO response (2018)

WHO is working with ministries of health and partners to 1) strengthen and invest in care, particularly around the time of birth and the first week of life as most newborns are dying in this time period; 2) improve the quality of maternal and newborn care from pregnancy to the entire postnatal period, including strengthening midwifery; 3) expand quality services for small and sick newborns, including through strengthening neonatal nursing; 4) reduce inequities in accordance with the principles of universal health coverage, including addressing the needs of newborns in humanitarian and fragile settings; 5) promote engagement of and empower mothers, families and communities to participate in and demand quality newborn care; and 6) strengthen measurement, program-tracking and accountability to count every newborn and stillbirth.


Infant mortality is a major concern globally and the need to attach some urgency to it the better.

There are a lot of setbacks in our healthcare system which needs to be addressed under the umbrella of World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and its affiliates to ensure that infant mortality is reduce to its barest minimum.

Proper attention should be provided by the government to augment the healthcare facilities with the necessary resources by providing adequate healthcare professional like doctors, nurses, pharmacist, and other auxiliary workers to support them in discharging their duties.

It’s very painful and heartbreaking to carry your baby for nine months and to lose him or her during delivery due to a situation which can be prevented.



1. World Health Organization. (2018). Newborn mortality. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/newborn-mortality

2. United Nations Children’s Fund. (2018). Newborn mortality. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/appeals/newborn.html

3. Save the Children. (2018). Newborn mortality. Retrieved from https://www.savethechildren.org/us/what-we-do/health/newborn-mortality

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Newborn mortality. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/infantmortality.htm

Parker JD, Schoendorf KC, Kiely JL. Associations between measures of socioeconomic status and low birth weight, small for gestational age, and premature delivery in the United States. Annals of Epidemiology 1994; 4:271-8.

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