instructions, template, and ebook that is to be used only is attached.  All answers for the questions can be found in this book.  

Reading Chapters:

PSYC 380

Memory Loss Activity Assignment Instructions

Overview

Read each scenario or brief question and respond in the Memory Loss Activity Worksheet Template boxes (they will expand to fit your answer). All information needed to answer these questions can be found in the assigned readings for this Module: Week. Note that each question is worth up to 10 points.

Instructions

To earn maximum credit please include :

· A response that is concise but thorough (3-5 sentences for each answer).

· At least two in-text citations to identify the source of information from our textbook or other scholarly source.

· Correct spelling and grammar.

· Proper APA formatting of your citations.

To avoid point deductions please:

· Do not copy and paste information from your textbook. Instead, paraphrase/rewrite in your own words to demonstrate your knowledge.

· Do not include any direct quotes.

,

PSYC 380

Memory Loss Activity Worksheet Template

1. Simon is a 53-year-old man who suffers from memory loss but attempts to compensate by guessing at what might have happened in the recent past. In 3-5 sentences identify the name of this type of memory loss, describe the likely cause, and provide an example of what his behavior might look like. (Minimum of 3-5 sentences and at least two citations).

2. Jolene is an 85-year-old woman whose memory loss began to be evident after her 82nd birthday. Although mild at first, it is clear that her memory loss is becoming progressively worse. When she visited a doctor for treatment, she was told that her memory loss was the most common type. If you were tasked with explaining Jolene’s diagnosis, cause, and predictable outcome what would you say? (Minimum of 3-5 sentences and at least two citations).

3. Explain the difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia and provide an example of what each one might look like in real life. Do not use the example provided in the book. Instead, formulate an example based on what you have learned. (Minimum of 3-5 sentences and at least two citations).

4. What might one expect to happen if an individual sustains serious injury to the hippocampus? Briefly discuss what memory functions are impacted and describe what this might look like in terms of behavior. (Minimum of 3-5 sentences and at least two citations).

5. Our textbook describes several “options” for improving memory. Please describe one method that appears to be most desirable in terms of safety and effectiveness and one that appears to be least desirable in terms of safety and effectiveness. (Minimum of 3-5 sentences and at least two citations).

Reference(s)

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James W. Kalat North Carolina State University

13th Edition

Biological Psychology

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Biological Psychology, Thirteenth Edition James W. Kalat

Product Director: Marta Lee-Perriard

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James W. Kalat (rhymes with ballot) is professor emeritus of psychology at

North Carolina State University, where he taught courses in introduction to

psychology and biological psychology from 1977 through 2012. Born in 1946,

he received a BA summa cum laude from Duke University in 1968, and a PhD in

psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1971. He is also the author of

Introduction to Psychology (11th edition) and co-author with Michelle Shiota of

Emotion (3rd edition). In addition to textbooks, he has written journal articles

on taste-aversion learning, the teaching of psychology, and other topics. He was

twice the program chair for the annual convention of the American Psychologi-

cal Society, now named the Association for Psychological Science. A remarried

widower, he has three children, two stepsons, and four grandchildren.

About the Author

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To my grandchildren.

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v

Brief Contents

Introduction 3

1 Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses 17

2 Synapses 41

3 Anatomy and Research Methods 67

4 Genetics, Evolution, Development, and Plasticity 103

5 Vision 147

6 Other Sensory Systems 187

7 Movement 225

8 Wakefulness and Sleep 257

9 Internal Regulation 289

10 Reproductive Behaviors 321

11 Emotional Behaviors 351

12 Learning, Memory, and Intelligence 383

13 Cognitive Functions 423

14 Psychological Disorders 459

A Brief, Basic Chemistry 496

B Society for Neuroscience Policies on the Use of Animals and Human Subjects in Research 502

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vii

Introduction

Overview and Major Issues 3 The Biological Approach to

Behavior 4 The Field of Biological Psychology 5 Three Main Points to Remember

from This Book 6 Biological Explanations of Behavior 6 Career Opportunities 8 The Use of Animals in Research 9

Degrees of Opposition 11 IN CLOSING: Your Brain and Your Experience 12

Chapter 1

Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses 17 Module 1.1

The Cells of the Nervous System 18 Neurons and Glia 18

Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a Pioneer of Neuroscience 18

The Structures of an Animal Cell 19 The Structure of a Neuron 19 Variations among Neurons 21 Glia 21

The Blood–Brain Barrier 23 Why We Need a Blood–Brain Barrier 23 How the Blood–Brain Barrier Works 24

Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons 25 IN CLOSING: Neurons 25

Module 1.2

The Nerve Impulse 28 The Resting Potential of the Neuron 28

Forces Acting on Sodium and Potassium Ions 29

Why a Resting Potential? 31 The Action Potential 31

The All-or-None Law 32 The Molecular Basis of the Action Potential 32

Propagation of the Action Potential 33 The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction 35

The Refractory Period 36 Local Neurons 36 IN CLOSING: Neurons and Messages 37

Chapter 2

Synapses 41 Module 2.1

The Concept of the Synapse 42 Properties of Synapses 42

Speed of a Reflex and Delayed Transmission at the Synapse 43

Temporal Summation 43 Spatial Summation 43 Inhibitory Synapses 45

Relationship among EPSP, IPSP, and Action Potentials 46

IN CLOSING: The Neuron as Decision Maker 47

Module 2.2

Chemical Events at the Synapse 50 The Discovery of Chemical Transmission at Synapses 50 The Sequence of Chemical Events at a Synapse 51

Types of Neurotransmitters 52 Synthesis of Transmitters 52 Storage of Transmitters 53 Release and Diffusion of Transmitters 53 Activating Receptors of the Postsynaptic Cell 54 Inactivation and Reuptake of Neurotransmitters 57 Negative Feedback from the Postsynaptic Cell 57 Electrical Synapses 59

Hormones 59 IN CLOSING: Neurotransmitters and Behavior 62

Contents

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viii Con ten ts

Chapter 3

Anatomy and Research Methods 67

Module 3.1

Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System 68 Terminology to Describe the Nervous

System 68 The Spinal Cord 70 The Autonomic Nervous System 71 The Hindbrain 72 The Midbrain 73 The Forebrain 74

Thalamus 76 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 77 Basal Ganglia 77 Basal Forebrain 78 Hippocampus 79

The Ventricles 79 IN CLOSING: Learning Neuroanatomy 80

Module 3.2

The Cerebral Cortex 82 Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 82 The Occipital Lobe 84 The Parietal Lobe 84 The Temporal Lobe 85 The Frontal Lobe 85

The Rise and Fall of Prefrontal Lobotomies 86

Functions of the Prefrontal Cortex 87 How Do the Parts Work Together? 87 IN CLOSING: Functions of the Cerebral Cortex 89

Module 3.3

Research Methods 91 Effects of Brain Damage 91 Effects of Brain Stimulation 92 Recording Brain Activity 93 Correlating Brain Anatomy with

Behavior 96 IN CLOSING: Research Methods and Progress 99

Chapter 4

Genetics, Evolution, Development, and Plasticity 103

Module 4.1

Genetics and Evolution of Behavior 104 Mendelian Genetics 104

Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Genes 106 Genetic Changes 107 Epigenetics 107

Heredity and Environment 108 Environmental Modification 109 How Genes Influence Behavior 110

The Evolution of Behavior 110 Common Misunderstandings about Evolution 110 Evolutionary Psychology 112

IN CLOSING: Genes and Behavior 114

Module 4.2

Development of the Brain 117 Maturation of the Vertebrate Brain 117

Growth and Development of Neurons 118 New Neurons Later in Life 119

Pathfinding by Axons 119 Chemical Pathfinding by Axons 119 Competition among Axons as a General

Principle 121 Determinants of Neuronal Survival 122 The Vulnerable Developing Brain 123 Differentiation of the Cortex 124 Fine-Tuning by Experience 125

Experience and Dendritic Branching 125 Effects of Special Experiences 127

Brain Development and Behavioral Development 131 Adolescence 131 Old Age 132

IN CLOSING: Brain Development 132

Module 4.3

Plasticity after Brain Damage 136 Brain Damage and Short-Term Recovery 136

Reducing the Harm from a Stroke 136 Later Mechanisms of Recovery 138

Increased Brain Stimulation 138

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Con ten ts ix

Regrowth of Axons 138 Axon Sprouting 139 Denervation Supersensitivity 139 Reorganized Sensory Representations

and the Phantom Limb 140 Learned Adjustments in Behavior 141

IN CLOSING: Brain Damage and Recovery 142

Chapter 5

Vision 147 Module 5.1

Visual Coding 148 General Principles

of Perception 148 The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain 149

Route within the Retina 149 Fovea and Periphery of the Retina 149

Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones 152 Color Vision 153

The Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) Theory 154 The Opponent-Process Theory 155 The Retinex Theory 156 Color Vision Deficiency 158

IN CLOSING: Visual Receptors 159

Module 5.2

How the Brain Processes Visual Information 162 An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System 162 Processing in the Retina 163 Further Processing 164 The Primary Visual Cortex 166

Simple and Complex Receptive Fields 167 The Columnar Organization of the Visual Cortex 168 Are Visual Cortex Cells Feature Detectors? 169

Development of the Visual Cortex 170 Deprived Experience in One Eye 171 Deprived Experience in Both Eyes 171 Uncorrelated Stimulation in the Two Eyes 171 Early Exposure to a Limited

Array of Patterns 172 Impaired Infant Vision

and Long-Term Consequences 173 IN CLOSING: Understanding Vision by Understanding the Wiring Diagram 174

Module 5.3

Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex 177 The Ventral and Dorsal Paths 177 Detailed Analysis of Shape 178

The Inferior Temporal Cortex 178 Recognizing Faces 179

Motion Perception 181 The Middle Temporal Cortex 181 Motion Blindness 182

IN CLOSING: Aspects of Vision 183

Chapter 6

Other Sensory Systems 187 Module 6.1

Audition 188 Sound and the Ear 188

Physics and Psychology of Sound 188 Structures of the Ear 189

Pitch Perception 190 The Auditory Cortex 191 Sound Localization 193 Individual Differences 195

Deafness 195 Hearing, Attention, and Old Age 196

IN CLOSING: Functions of Hearing 196

Module 6.2

The Mechanical Senses 199 Vestibular Sensation 199 Somatosensation 199

Somatosensory Receptors 200 Tickle 201 Somatosensation in the Central

Nervous System 202 Pain 203

Stimuli and Spinal Cord Paths 203 Emotional Pain 204 Ways of Relieving Pain 205 Sensitization of Pain 207

Itch 208 IN CLOSING: The Mechanical Senses 208

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x Con ten ts

Module 6.3

The Chemical Senses 211 Taste 211

Taste Receptors 211 How Many Kinds of Taste Receptors? 211 Mechanisms of Taste Receptors 213 Taste Coding in the Brain 214 Variations in Taste Sensitivity 214

Olfaction 216 Olfactory Receptors 217 Implications for Coding 218 Messages to the Brain 219 Individual Differences 219

Pheromones 220 Synesthesia 220 IN CLOSING: Senses as Ways of Knowing the World 221

Chapter 7

Movement 225 Module 7.1

The Control of Movement 226 Muscles and Their Movements 226

Fast and Slow Muscles 226 Muscle Control by Proprioceptors 228

Units of Movement 230 Voluntary and Involuntary Movements 230 Movements Varying in Sensitivity to Feedback 230 Sequences of Behaviors 230

IN CLOSING: Categories of Movement 231

Module 7.2

Brain Mechanisms of Movement 233 The Cerebral Cortex 233

Planning a Movement 235 Inhibiting a Movement 236 Mirror Neurons 236 Connections from the Brain to the Spinal Cord 238

The Cerebellum 239 Functions Other than Movement 240 Cellular Organization 241

The Basal Ganglia 241 Brain Areas and Motor Learning 244 Conscious Decisions and Movement 244 IN CLOSING: Movement Control and Cognition 246

Module 7.3

Movement Disorders 249 Parkinson’s Disease 249

Causes 250 L-Dopa Treatment 250 Other Therapies 250

Huntington’s Disease 251 Heredity and Presymptomatic Testing 252

IN CLOSING: Movement Disorders Affect More than Movement 254

Chapter 8

Wakefulness and Sleep 257 Module 8.1

Rhythms of Waking and Sleeping 258 Endogenous Rhythms 258 Setting and Resetting the Biological Clock 259

Jet Lag 261 Shift Work 261 Morning People and Evening People 261

Mechanisms of the Biological Clock 262 The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) 263 How Light Resets the SCN 264 The Biochemistry of the Circadian Rhythm 264 Melatonin 265

IN CLOSING: Sleep–Wake Cycles 266

Module 8.2

Stages of Sleep and Brain Mechanisms 268 Sleep and Other Interruptions of Consciousness 268 The Stages of Sleep 268 Paradoxical or REM Sleep 269 Brain Mechanisms of Wakefulness, Arousal,

and Sleep 271 Brain Structures of Arousal and Attention 271 Sleep and the Inhibition of Brain Activity 273

Brain Activity in REM Sleep 274 Sleep Disorders 274

Sleep Apnea 276 Narcolepsy 276 Periodic Limb Movement Disorder 277 REM Behavior Disorder 277 Night Terrors and Sleepwalking 277

IN CLOSING: Stages of Sleep 278

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Con ten ts xi

Module 8.3

Why Sleep? Why REM? Why Dreams? 280 Functions of Sleep 280

Sleep and Energy Conservation 280 Analogous to Sleep: Hibernation 280 Species Differences in Sleep 281 Sleep and Memory 283

Functions of REM Sleep 283 Biological Perspectives on Dreaming 284

The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis 284 The Neurocognitive Hypothesis 285

IN CLOSING: Our Limited Self-Understanding 285

Chapter 9

Internal Regulation 289 Module 9.1

Temperature Regulation 290 Homeostasis and Allostasis 291 Controlling Body Temperature 292

Surviving in Extreme Cold 293 The Advantages of Constant High Body

Temperature 293 Brain Mechanisms 294 Fever 295

IN CLOSING: Combining Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms 296

Module 9.2

Thirst 298 Mechanisms of Water Regulation 298 Osmotic Thirst 298 Hypovolemic Thirst and Sodium-Specific Hunger 300 IN CLOSING: The Psychology and Biology of Thirst 301

Module 9.3

Hunger 303 Digestion and Food Selection 303

Consumption of Dairy Products 304 Food Selection and Behavior 304

Short- and Long-Term Regulation of Feeding 305 Oral Factors 305 The Stomach and Intestines 306

Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagon 306 Leptin 308

Brain Mechanisms 309 The Arcuate Nucleus and Paraventricular

Hypothalamus 309 The Lateral Hypothalamus 311 Medial Areas of the Hypothalamus 312

Eating Disorders 313 Genetics and Body Weight 314 Weight Loss Techniques 314 Bulimia Nervosa 315 Anorexia Nervosa 316

IN CLOSING: The Multiple Controls of Hunger 317

Chapter 10

Reproductive Behaviors 321 Module 10.1

Sex and Hormones 322 Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones 324

Sex Differences in the Brain 325 Sex Differences in Play 327

Activating Effects of Sex Hormones 328 Males 328 Females 329 Effects of Sex Hormones on Nonsexual

Characteristics 331 Parental Behavior 332 IN CLOSING: Reproductive Behaviors and Motivations 334

Module 10.2

Variations in Sexual Behavior 337 Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior 337

Interest in Multiple Mates 337 What Men and Women Seek in a Mate 338 Differences in Jealousy 338 Evolved or Learned? 338

Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated Behaviors 338 Intersexes 339 Interests and Preferences of Girls with CAH 340 Testicular Feminization 340 Issues of Gender Assignment and Rearing 340 Discrepancies of Sexual Appearance 341

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xii Con ten ts

Sexual Orientation 342 Behavioral and Anatomical Differences 342 Genetics 342 An Evolutionary Question 343 Prenatal Influences 344 Brain Anatomy 344

IN CLOSING: We Are Not All the Same 346

Chapter 11

Emotional Behaviors 351 Module 11.1

What Is Emotion? 352 Emotions and Autonomic Arousal 352

Is Physiological Arousal Necessary for Emotional Feelings? 353

Is Physiological Arousal Sufficient for Emotions? 354

Is Emotion a Useful Concept? 354 Do People Have a Few Basic Emotions? 356 The Functions of Emotion 357

Emotions and Moral Decisions 358 IN CLOSING: Emotions and the Nervous System 360

Module 11.2

Attack and Escape Behaviors 362 Attack Behaviors 362

Heredity and Environment in Violence 363 Hormonal Effects 363 Serotonin Synapses and Aggressive Behavior 364 Testosterone, Serotonin, and Cortisol 365

Fear and Anxiety 365 Role of the Amygdala in Rodents 366 Studies of the Amygdala in Monkeys 367 Response of the Human Amygdala to Visual

Stimuli 367 Individual Differences in Amygdala Response and

Anxiety 368 Damage to the Human Amygdala 369

Anxiety Disorders 371 Relief from Anxiety 372

Pharmacological Relief 372 Alcohol and Anxiety 373

IN CLOSING: Doing Something about Emotions 373

Module 11.3

Stress and Health 376 Stress and the General Adaptation Syndrome 376 Stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex

Axis 377 The Immune System 377 Effects of Stress on the Immune System 378

Coping with Stress 379 IN CLOSING: Emotions and Body Reactions 380

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