Good morning. I need to do a PowerPoint project. Should be no less than 20 slides without counting the presentation and references, with illustrations, and with the specifications required by the institution. It should be on Friday 06/03/2022.

Respiratory tract infection

– Asthma

– Pneumonia

– Bronchitis

The presentation should include:

1. Essential about each disease assigned

2. Signs and Symptoms

3. Diagnosis

4. Treatment 

Thank you

Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Medications

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Indications

Asthma and COPD are similar: Chronic and obstructive

Asthma is largely inflammatory with a greater degree of reversibility than COPD

Drug therapy only controls symptoms in COPD

Although the same drugs are used in treatment, the responses of asthma and COPD to pharmacotherapy differ

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

β-Adrenergic Agonist Bronchodilators

Sympathomimetics

Result in smooth muscle relaxation

Nonselective β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and, to a lesser extent, selective β2-adrenergic agonists cause reflex tachycardia

β2-Selective agents have the greatest effect in bronchial, uterine, and vascular smooth muscles

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3

Methylxanthines

Promote bronchodilation

Stimulate vagal center causing bradycardia

In large doses, cause positive inotropic effect on myocardium and positive chronotropic effect on sinoatrial node

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4

Anticholinergics

Nonselective competitive antagonists of muscarinic receptors

Antimuscarinic effect blocks bronchoconstriction

Reduce airway secretions and airway resistance

Ipratropium and tiotropium when inhaled may be more effective in COPD than in asthma

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5

Blocks acetylcholine-induced stimulation of cyclic guanyl cyclase, reducing production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a mediator of bronchoconstriction

5

Mast Cell Stabilizers

Prevent and reduce inflammatory response in bronchial walls by inhibiting secretion of mediators from mast cells

Exact mechanism of action of these drugs on mast cells remains to be established

Act locally to inhibit release of mediators of type 1 allergic reactions, including histamine and leukotrienes, from sensitized mast cells after exposure to an antigen

Antiasthmatic and antiallergenic: May act as bronchodilators

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6

Corticosteroids

Reduce airflow obstruction by reducing airway inflammation in bronchioles

Modify the body’s immune responses to various stimuli

Suppress cytokine production, airway eosinophil recruitment, and release of inflammatory mediators

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) provide local therapeutic action with minimal systemic effects

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

7

Leukotriene Modifiers

Act on inflammatory mediators of asthma

May be used as an alternative to inhaled corticosteroids

In patients with mild persistent or aspirin-sensitive asthma

Effect is weaker than low-dose inhaled corticosteroids

Often used as add-on therapy in asthma

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8

Treatment Principles for Asthma

Long-Term Control

Corticosteroids (inhaled, occasionally systemic)

Mast cell stabilizers

Leukotriene modifiers

Long-acting β2-agonists

Methylxanthines

Quick Relief

Short-acting β2-agonists

Anticholinergics

Systemic corticosteroids

(See Figures 16-3 and 16-4 for more complete treatment approach)

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

9

Treatment Principles for COPD

Bronchodilators are primary to symptom management

COPD

Stage I

Short-acting bronchodilator is indicated for prn use

Stages II-IV

Long-acting bronchodilator should be added if dyspnea persists during daily activities

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

10

Treatment Principles for COPD (Cont.)

Influenza and pneumococcal immunizations are recommended

Exacerbations

Increase dose and frequency of short-acting bronchodilators, systemic corticosteroids, and antibiotics if purulent sputum develops

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

11

Treatment Principles for COPD (Cont.)

Maintenance

Anticholinergics

β2-Adrenergic agonists

Methylxanthines

Corticosteroids (inhaled, occasionally oral)

Expectorants

Severe Exacerbation

Anticholinergics

β2-Agonists

Methylxanthines

Corticosteroids (oral)

Copyright © 2013 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

12



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